Research Equipment & Techniques in Heikal Laboratory

We integrate the state-of-the-art biophotonics techniques for non-invasive fluorescence studies of biological and biomolecular systems. Our multimodal fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy techniques enable us to gain a multi-dimensional perspective of molecular mechanisms that underlie a given biological process. We use a variation of the following techniques in our laboratory (see images below) for "ensemble" and "single-molecule" studies:

Heikal Lab
  • Two-Photon Fluorescence Microscopy
  • Two-Photon Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM)
  • Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS)
  • Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)
  • Laser Scanning Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy (LSCM)
  • Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) Microscopy 
  • Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy (Excited State Dynamics and Time-Resolved Anisotropy)
  • Spectrophotometery and Spectrofluorimtery
  • Electroformation Method for Model Membranes (GUVs) Assemblies
  • Cell and Tissue Culture
  • Image Processing and Data Analysis Algorithm
FLIM Setup (Heikal Lab)


FCS Lab (Heikal)


FCS and FLIM/Anisotropy Layout (Heikal)

In addition, there are other shared, scientific facilities at the University of Minnesota-Duluth that are at our disposal as well and include: